“Presumptive treatment” without the benefit of laboratory confirmation should be reserved for extreme circumstances (strong clinical suspicion or severe disease in a setting where prompt laboratory diagnosis is not available). Once the diagnosis of malaria has been made, appropriate antimalarial treatment must be initiated immediately. Retinal exam hydroxychloroquine frequency Chloroquine concentration Chloroquine alone without proguanil is used as a prophylactic drug in certain areas where only P. vivax is present. – Resistance of P. vivax to chloroquine exists in Indonesia and Oceania. – Storage below 25 °C - Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, for it started to develop widespread resistance to it. Chloroquine CQ is the first-line treatment for vivax malaria in Ethiopia, but there is evidence for its declining efficacy. Defining the extent and regional distribution of CQ resistance is critical to ensure optimal treatment guidelines. The clinical status of the patient: Patients diagnosed with malaria are generally categorized as having either uncomplicated or severe malaria. Treatment should be guided by three main factors: infections, the urgent initiation of appropriate therapy is especially critical. Chloroquine vivax Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects., Chloroquine - Wikipedia Hydroxychloroquine for tall thin patient Vivax malaria relapses are predominantly delayed by chloroquine CQ but prevented by primaquine PMQ, according to a study published in Clinical Infectious Diseases. Plasmodium vivax exerts considerable morbidity by causing repeat relapses. For nearly 70 years, CQ has been the standard P vivax treatment, although resistance is increasing. CQ. Vivax Malaria Relapses Predominantly Delayed by Chloroquine.. Chloroquine efficacy for Plasmodium vivax malaria.. CDC - Malaria - Diagnosis & Treatment United States.. Where chloroquine remains the first-line treatment of P vivax, the treatment regimen can potentially be optimised, either by increasing the dose or duration of chloroquine, or by combining chloroquine with an additional drug with blood schizontocidal activity or the ability to reverse chloroquine resistance. Medscape - Indication-specific dosing for Aralen, Chloroquine phosphate chloroquine, frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information. Chloroquine remains the treatment of choice for vivax malaria, except in Indonesia's Irian Jaya Western New Guinea region and the geographically contiguous Papua New Guinea, where chloroquine resistance is common up to 20% resistance.